CDI Labs Autoantibody Seromics

Autoantibody Seromics Overview

To better understand diseases and their potential treatments, it is important to study immune responses to individual antigens: the precise molecular-level targets recognized by the adaptive immune system.

REQUEST INFO

Our Immune System is Adaptive and Ever-changing

It is informed by infections, foods, injuries, microbes, and our environment – made up of hundreds of billions of independent immune cells competing to seek, destroy, and remember antigen targets across our lifetime.

A lifetime of immune experiences drives the body to make countless antibody clones

This creates an antigen-specific antibody fingerprint that's more unique than the genome

Adaptive Antibodies Figure

Autoantibody Seromics Overview

Antibodies Come in a Variety of Forms Called Isotypes

Depending on the isotype, antibodies can promote cell killing, protective immune tolerance, or help educate T cells.

Antibody Types Figure

Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune disease

Featured publication (HuProt):

Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in humans with alternative NF-κB pathway deficiency

Tom Le Voyer, Anne Puel, et. al.

Autoantibodies play a crucial role in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases which occur when the immune system mistakenly targets and attacks the body's own tissues, mistaking them for foreign invaders.

Autoantibodies can directly contribute to tissue damage in conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, where autoantibodies target joint tissues or components of the skin, kidneys, and other organs, leading to inflammation and organ dysfunction. They can even directly influence the function of immune cytokines, altering the progression and symptoms of autoimmune conditions.

Understanding the specific autoantibodies involved in an autoimmune disease can guide treatment strategies. For example, therapies may aim to suppress the overall immune response, reduce inflammation, or target specific components of the immune system responsible for producing autoantibodies.

Research in the field of autoimmunity is ongoing, and scientists are continually identifying new autoantibodies associated with different autoimmune diseases. This deeper understanding of the role of autoantibodies is contributing to the development of more targeted and personalized approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune conditions.

> Contact us about your autoimmune disease study or questions.

Cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the power of the immune system to target and destroy cancer cells. While autoantibodies are traditionally associated with autoimmune diseases, their role in cancer is a complex and evolving area of research.

Autoantibodies, particularly those targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), have the potential to be exploited for therapeutic purposes. Strategies involving the enhancement of these autoantibodies or the development of vaccines to stimulate their production are areas of ongoing research.

The presence of specific autoantibodies in the blood of cancer patients has been investigated for early cancer detection. Some studies suggest that autoantibodies against certain TAAs may appear in the bloodstream before the onset of clinical symptoms. Early detection is crucial for improving treatment outcomes, and autoantibodies could potentially serve as biomarkers for cancer screening.

Autoantibodies have gained attention as potential biomarkers in the field of immuno-oncology. More specifically, research has demonstrated that autoantibody signatures have the potential to predict both disease recurrence and immune-related adverse events in melanoma patients treated with checkpoint inhibitor adjuvant immunotherapy.

> Contact us about your immuno-oncology study or questions.

Neurological Diseases

Neurological diseases

Featured publication (HuProt):

Clonally expanded B cells in multiple sclerosis bind EBV EBNA1 and GlialCAM

Tobias V. Lanz, William H. Robinson, et. al.

Autoantibodies can play a significant role in neurological diseases, contributing to various autoimmune disorders that affect the central nervous system. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly targets components of the nervous system, leading to inflammation, tissue damage, and neurological symptoms.

The detection of specific autoantibodies in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid can aid in the diagnosis of certain neurological diseases and is often performed in conjunction with clinical and imaging studies to confirm diagnoses.

Conditions for which autoantibodies have been indicated as a causal factor include, Autoimmune Encephalitis, Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes, Multiple Sclerosis, Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

> Contact us about your neurological disease study or questions.

Infectious Diseases

infectious disease

Featured publication (HuProt):

Immunopathological signatures in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and pediatric COVID-19

Keith Sacco, Luigi D. Notarangelo, et. al.

Autoantibodies can sometimes be associated with infectious diseases, and their presence or induction is a complex aspect of the host immune response. Infections have the capability of inducing a new autoimmune response or worsening an existing condition.

Molecular mimicry is a phenomenon where the antigens of infectious agents resemble host tissues. This can lead to the production of antibodies that cross-react with both the infectious agent and self-antigens. For example, research indicates that Epstein-Barr virus can lead to the development of MS via high-affinity molecular mimicry between the EBV transcription factor EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and the central nervous system protein glial cell adhesion molecule (GlialCAM).

Certain infections can trigger autoimmune responses which lead to the production of autoantibodies even after the infection has been cleared. One such example is post-streptococcal autoimmune reactions, where infections like streptococcal pharyngitis can lead to the production of autoantibodies that target host tissues, causing conditions such as rheumatic fever.

Some infections can induce systemic autoimmune responses, where the immune system produces autoantibodies that target a variety of self-antigens. This phenomenon is an area of research in conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, where viral infections may contribute to the activation of autoreactive immune cells, leading to the production of autoantibodies and inflammation.

> Contact us about your infectious disease study or questions.

Genetic Diseases

genetic diseases

Featured publication (HuProt):

Autoimmunity in Down’s syndrome via cytokines, CD4 T cells and CD11c+ B cells

Louise Malle, Dusan Bogunovic, et. al.

While autoimmune diseases are not typically considered genetic diseases in the traditional sense, there is evidence to suggest a genetic predisposition to autoimmune tendencies. Several autoimmune diseases have a complex etiology involving both genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors can influence the risk of developing an autoimmune disease by contributing to an individual's immune system function. Some key points regarding the relationship between genetics and autoimmune predisposition are:

Genetic Susceptibility: Certain genetic conditions have been linked to an increased risk of autoimmune diseases, with patients described as being in an “autoimmunity-prone state.”

Familial Clustering: Autoimmune diseases often show a familial clustering, suggesting a genetic component.

Polygenic Inheritance: Many autoimmune diseases are polygenic, meaning that multiple genes contribute to the overall risk. The interaction of various genetic factors, along with environmental triggers, can influence the development of autoimmune conditions.

Epigenetic Modifications: Epigenetic changes, which can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, may also play a role in regulating immune system function and contributing to autoimmune tendencies.

It’s important to note that while genetic factors can increase susceptibility, environmental triggers (such as infections, hormonal changes, and exposure to certain substances) also play a significant role in the development of autoimmune diseases. The interplay between genetic and environmental factors is complex, and not everyone with a genetic predisposition will develop an autoimmune disease.

> Contact us about your genetic disease study or questions.